Wednesday, 30 March 2016

Traffic signs, signals and road markings . . .

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Traffic signs, signals and road markings


Cited at: https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/traffic-signs-signals-and-road-markings

Road traffic signs regulations, guidance and images.

Contents

Road traffic signs, signals and road markings are methods for communicating with road users. They need to be simple and concise so people can understand them quickly. The Department for Transport produces regulations and guidance to make sure that traffic authorities use traffic signs and road markings correctly.

Regulations

The Traffic Signs Regulations and General Directions 2002 (TSRGD) as amended, prescribe the designs and conditions of use for traffic signs to be lawfully placed on or near roads in England, Scotland and Wales.

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Guidance

The Department for Transport provides guidance to traffic authorities and their agents on the correct use of signs and road markings via a range of publications.
Local transport notes

Local transport notes summarise the latest and most important ideas about traffic management issues and provide guidance for local authorities.
Traffic advisory leaflets (TAL)

Traffic advisory leaflets provide information and guidance for using traffic equipment and implementing traffic regulations and policies.

Nothing in these guidance publications overrides the TSRGD.
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Traffic signs authorisation database and traffic sign images

The TSRGD details every traffic sign and road marking prescribed for use in the UK and also stipulates the conditions under which each sign may be used.

Where there is no suitable prescribed sign, an application can be made to the Department for Transport for authorisation to use a specially designed non-prescribed sign which is not contained in the TSRGD.

‘Traffic signs images’ contains more than 600 traffic sign images in different formats. It’s intended mainly for media professionals to reproduce in printed matter, on screen or in other media.

‘Working drawings for traffic signs’ details the design of particular traffic signs from TSRGD and include some permitted variants. It’s intended for traffic sign professionals.
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Tuesday, 29 March 2016

Highway Code - Traffic-calming measures . . .

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Traffic-calming measures 

The Highway Code applies to England, Scotland and Wales and is essential reading for everyone. 

Rule 153


Traffic-calming measures. On some roads there are features such as road humps, chicanes and narrowings which are intended to slow you down. When you approach these features reduce your speed. Allow cyclists and motorcyclists room to pass through them. Maintain a reduced speed along the whole of the stretch of road within the calming measures. Give way to oncoming road users if directed to do so by signs. You should not overtake other moving road users while in these areas.








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Monday, 28 March 2016

Doctors to be told to inform on unfit drivers . . .

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Doctors to be told to inform on unfit drivers

Cited at: http://transportoperator.co.uk/2015/11/25/doctors-told-to-inform-on-unfit-drivers/



New guidelines from the General Medical Council (GMC), the statutory body with which all UK doctors must be registered, are likely to oblige GPs to report patients who are medically unfit to drive to the Driver & Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA), or the Driver & Vehicle Agency (DVA), the equivalent body in Northern Ireland.

The draft guidelines, which are out to consultation until February, have been issued in the wake of several high-profile accidents involving commercial vehicles, in which driver health has been identified as a potential contributory factor.

The current rules already allow doctors to inform the DVLA or DVA without consent where a patient has continued to drive without medical advice. But the new guidelines strengthen this position by emphasising that doctors have a duty to report such cases.

“If you conclude that a patient’s refusal to give consent [for you to disclose relevant information to the DVLA or DVA] leaves others exposed to a risk of death or serious harm, you should contact the DVLA or DVA immediately and disclose any relevant medical information, in confidence, to the medical adviser,” the draft GMC guidelines state.

“Before contacting the DVLA or DVA, you should try to inform the patient of your decision to disclose personal information. You should then also inform the patient in writing once you have done so.”

Drivers themselves are legally obliged to report any relevant medical conditions to the DVLA, with potential fines of up to £1,000 should they fail to do so. But critics of the status quo point out that, particularly for those who drive professionally for a living, there are potentially strong financial disincentives for doing so. 

Niall Dickson, chief executive of the General Medical Council, said: “This is difficult territory – most patients will do the sensible thing but the truth is that a few will not and may not have the insight to realise that they are a risk to others…

“Confidentiality is not absolute and doctors can play an important part in keeping the wider public safe if a patient is not safe to drive… We are clear that doctors carrying out their duty will not face any sanction – and this new guidance makes clear that we will support those who are faced with these difficult decisions.”

The Freight Transport Association (FTA), which has been calling for fleet operators to get access to medical decisions which indicate a lack of fitness to drive, called the move “a step in the right direction” – but said more needed to be done.

Ian Gallagher, FTA’s lead on DVLA, said: “We’re in a ridiculous situation that the employer is completely reliant on the individual to notify them that they have a medical condition. In some cases it’s the employer’s own checks that actually highlight that entitlement has been suspended or revoked on medical grounds.

“Employers have no right to access medical records. Patients can even veto doctors’ letters if they don’t agree with what’s been written.”

He continued: “FTA believes that GPs should seriously consider the draft guidance and put what’s written into practice and notify DVLA if they know patients are driving against their advice, but, this doesn’t go far enough. We need a process that involves the employers that provides access to necessary medical information, which could ultimately save lives.”

The road safety charity Brake welcomed the move, meanwhile, saying it had “long called for greater clarity from the GMC.”

Gary Rae, director of communications and campaigns for Brake, said: “This is a positive move by the GMC, which will clarify the responsibilities and duties of both doctor and patient. We do recognise that, previously, doctors have been in a difficult position regarding confidentiality of their patients but the guidance makes it clear that this confidentiality is not absolute.”

He added: “I would appeal to all drivers to ensure that they do declare any medical conditions that could prevent them from driving safely to the DVLA/DVA. If they fail to do so, they will pose a continuing risk to themselves and other road users.”

FTA said its chief executive, David Wells, had recently attended a meeting to discuss access to medical records with transport minister Lord Ahmad.

““I urged the department to consider ways to speed up the process for employers to have better access to medical information so they can manage the risk to all road users appropriately,” Mr Wells said. “The industry takes this seriously and needs appropriate tools to manage drivers while respecting individuals’ privacy and data.”








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Sunday, 27 March 2016

Highway Code - Reflective road studs . . .

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Reflective road studs 

The Highway Code applies to England, Scotland and Wales and is essential reading for everyone. 

Rule 132


Reflective road studs may be used with white lines. 
  • White studs mark the lanes or the middle of the road. 
  • Red studs mark the left edge of the road. 
  • Amber studs mark the central reservation of a dual carriageway or motorway. 
  • Green studs mark the edge of the main carriageway at lay-bys and slip roads. 
  • Green/yellow studs indicate temporary adjustments to lane layouts, e.g. where road works are taking place. 

















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Saturday, 26 March 2016

Motorists who use their mobile phones at the wheel will face heavier fines of £150 as part of a new government crackdown . . .

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Motorists who use their mobile phones at the wheel will face heavier fines of £150 as part of a new government crackdown

  • Minsters launched the road safety initiative after a spate of cyclist deaths prompted concern over lorry drivers who flout the law 
  • Penalty points for truck drivers caught breaking the law will now double in a bid to prevent more deaths on roads
  • Car and van drivers caught using their mobile phones will see penalty points increase from three points to four
  • Last year, 21 fatal car crashes and 84 'serious accidents' were blamed on a driver using a mobile phone at the wheel 


Cited at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3367628/Motorists-use-mobile-phones-wheel-face-150-fine.html

Motorists caught using their mobile phones at the wheel face a fine of £150 as part of a Government crackdown on dangerous driving.

The Government's new road safety plan comes after a spate of cyclist deaths prompted concern over lorry drivers who continue to flout the law.

Penalty points for truck drivers caught using their phones will now double in a bid to prevent more deaths on roads.

Penalty points for truck drivers caught using their phones at the wheel will now double under the proposals

The maximum penalty for truck drivers caught breaking the law will double from three points to six and car and van drivers will see penalty points increase from three points to four.

Last year, 21 fatal car crashes and 84 'serious accidents' were blamed on a driver using a mobile phone at the wheel.

All drivers will face heftier fines which shoot up from £100 to £150 The Independent reports. 

Government proposals will mean that first-time offenders will still be offered special courses in an effort to change their behaviour. But repeat offenders will face harsher fines.

The Government's new road safety plan has been welcomed by safety campaigners but a cycling group told The Independent, that ministers need to put more police on roads. 

David Murray, head of communications and campaigns at CTC, the national cycling charity told The Independent: 'While CTC welcomes this move as one way to discourage texting while driving, the biggest deterrent would be a greater police presence on our roads. 

'Sadly, cuts to policing have had a disproportionately high impact on police numbers on our roads. 


Stop mobile distraction before getting behind wheel, say RSA



There has been a sharp increase in the amount of drivers talking and texting while they drive, figures show

Over the past five years, the number of drivers caught using mobile phones behind the wheel has dropped by 47 per cent, according to figures seen by the RAC.

However there has been a sharp increase in the amount of drivers talking and texting while they drive. In 2014, 492 accidents were a result of a driver using a phone, up 40 per cent on 2010. 


Edmund King, president of the AA, said there was an 'epidemic of hand-held mobile phone use while driving' and backed the Government's clampdown.





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Friday, 25 March 2016

Highway Code - Drugs . . .

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Drugs 

The Highway Code applies to England, Scotland and Wales and is essential reading for everyone. 

Rule 96


You MUST NOT drive under the influence of drugs or medicine. For medicines, check with your doctor or pharmacist and do not drive if you are advised that you may be impaired.

You MUST NOT drive if you have illegal drugs or certain medicines in your blood above specified limits. It is highly dangerous so never take illegal drugs if you intend to drive; the effects are unpredictable, but can be even more severe than alcohol and result in fatal or serious road crashes. Illegal drugs have been specified at very low levels so even small amounts of use could be above the specified limits. The limits for certain medicines have been specified at higher levels, above the levels generally found in the blood of patients who have taken normal therapeutic doses. If you are found to have a concentration of a drug above its specified limit in your blood because you have been prescribed or legitimately supplied a particularly high dose of medicine, then you can raise a statutory medical defence, provided your driving was not impaired by the medicine you are taking.







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Thursday, 24 March 2016

Fwd: Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency Daily Digest Bulletin

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Moving On


Read all the latest blog posts on the Moving On blog.



The Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency (DVSA) won an international road safety award on 8 December 2015 for its guide on load securing. In this blog, Peter Hearn, DVSA's Head of Policy Development and Product talks about the awards event and how the guide was produced.


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Between June and October 2015, DVSA published a series of Individual Vehicle Approval (IVA) 'help to get a pass' guides. We've done this to help give you a better chance of meeting the required standards and getting a first time pass at an IVA inspection.


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We're transforming our approach to enforcement

We're currently working towards transforming our approach to enforcement which gives recognition to compliant operators as well as focusing on the seriously or serially non-compliant.



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PSV restricted licences: the dos and don'ts

Restricted PSV applicants and operators are coming under greater scrutiny by Traffic Commissioners because of fair competition rules. If you're running vehicles under a restricted PSV operator's licence, there are a number of standards you need to meet to keep your licence.



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Freight enforcement partnership helping to make London's roads safer

DVSA has joined in a partnership with Transport for London, Metropolitan Police and City of London Police with the aim of reducing the number of unsafe lorry drivers and operators on London's roads.



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The Highway Code is now easier to use online



Based on research undertaken with people who use The Highway Code, DVSA has made it easier to use and share from GOV.UK. This will improve people's knowledge and change their behaviour on the road for the better and, hopefully, for life.



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Did you know that nearly 90% of operator licence applications sent to the Central Licensing Office (CLO) in Leeds are incomplete? The traffic commissioners and their staff have made improvements to application forms and provided clearer guidance to avoid incomplete applications.




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We appreciate your feedback. Please contact us at movingon@dvsa.gsi.gov.uk

Please share or forward this email to anyone you know who hasn't signed up to Moving On updates. Anyone can sign up for free updates here.




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Wednesday, 23 March 2016

Learner drivers to be allowed on motorway before they pass test . . .

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Learner drivers to be allowed on motorway before they pass test

Cited at: 
http://www.lancashiretelegraph.co.uk/news/14161562.Learner_drivers_to_be_allowed_on_motorway_before_they_pass_test/



LEARNER drivers will be allowed to drive on the motorway before they pass their test under new plans announced by the government.

The lift in the ban is part of a scheme to improve road safety and will be backed by £2 million of research into driver education.

As it stands, motorists are only allowed on to the motorway once they have passed their practical exam.

Under the Department for Transport plans, learners would be offered the opportunity to take a motorway driving lesson with an approved driving instructor in a dual-controlled car.


Rossendale and Darwen MP Jake Berry said he thought the plans were a good idea.

He said: “Young people getting experience travelling at 70mph is a good idea as long as its with a qualified teacher.

“Young people need that experience at dealing with the high speeds.

“It is vital to improve their driving capabilities and give them the confidence to go out on their own and drive.”

Fee Khan, who’s been an instructor for nine years and runs Female In-Tuition Driving Academy, in Blackburn, said she welcomed the plans to let learners drive on the motorway.

She said: “I think it’s a great idea because it’s something everyone has to do.

“A learner could pass their test today and drive on to the motorway without any experience whatsoever.

“People are encouraged to take part in Pass Plus, but it is at the drivers’ discretion to come back and take part in it.

“But if motorways were part of the learning experience, then drivers would be more comfortable on them.”

Other instructors had different opinions on letting learners on the motorway before passing.

Ken Howarth, who’s been an instructor for eight years and runs Burnley Driving School, said: “I don’t think it’s a good idea to let learners on the motorways before they’ve passed their test.

“To take people out on to the motorway early on in their driving would be difficult as they would have to cope with the flow of traffic and the high speeds.
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“I do think it should be compulsory, however, as you need to be able to drive on a motorway, but it should be compulsory after they have qualified as a driver.”

Other plans include an increase in penalties for drivers who use a handheld phone at the wheel from three points to four and increasing fines to £150.







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Tuesday, 22 March 2016

Highway Code - Parking At Night . . .

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Parking at night 

The Highway Code applies to England, Scotland and Wales and is essential reading for everyone. 

Rule 248


You MUST NOT park on a road at night facing against the direction of the traffic flow unless in a recognised parking space.










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Monday, 21 March 2016

Britain marks 50 years of seatbelt safety . . .

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Britain marks 50 years of seatbelt safety

Cited at: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/britain-marks-50-years-of-seatbelt-safety


Thousands of lives have been saved since the first seatbelt law was passed 50 years ago.



The 1966 legislation made it compulsory for all new cars to have seatbelt fittings. This simple change has revolutionised the way that drivers and passengers look after their own safety when driving.

In a crash you are twice as likely to die if you don’t wear a seatbelt and the government’s THINK! campaign has played a crucial role in reminding people of the importance of this safety measure. For the past 10 years the number of people wearing seatbelts has consistently been above 90%, with a high of 98% of car drivers recorded wearing a seatbelt in 2014.

Road Safety Minister Andrew Jones said:

The introduction of compulsory seatbelts has, without a doubt, saved many thousands of lives and has had a huge impact on road safety.

Many families have been spared the heartbreak of a death or serious injury of a loved one as a result of a simple action at the start of each trip.

While the vast majority of people do wear seatbelts in both the front and back seats, there are still some who don’t and I urge all drivers and passengers to make sure they are safely belted in, even on the shortest of journeys.

Drivers and passengers who fail to wear seatbelts in the front and back of vehicles are breaking the law and drivers caught without a seatbelt face on-the-spot fines of £100. If prosecuted, the maximum fine is £500.

National Police Chiefs’ Council lead for roads policing Suzette Davenport said:


Seatbelts are not only a legal requirement, they are the first and best line of preventative defence against death and serious injury in road traffic collisions.

During our recent week-long road safety campaign, 2,961 offences were recorded, which shows that some people are still not getting the message.

We in the police will do our utmost to keep our roads safe for all of us, but I urge the public in the strongest terms to do what they can to help us, first and foremost by remembering to wear their seatbelts.

The style of THINK! seatbelt advertisements has changed over the years, but the message remains the same, wear a seatbelt. A montage of the government’s seatbelt advertisements is available on the THINK! website.






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Sunday, 20 March 2016

Highway Code - Windy Weather . . .

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Windy weather 

The Highway Code applies to England, Scotland and Wales and is essential reading for everyone. 

Rule 232 


High-sided vehicles are most affected by windy weather, but strong gusts can also blow a car, cyclist, motorcyclist or horse rider off course. This can happen on open stretches of road exposed to strong crosswinds, or when passing bridges or gaps in hedges. 











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Saturday, 19 March 2016

Reasons why your car fails an MOT . . .

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Reasons why your car fails an MOT


Cited at: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/reasons-why-your-car-fails-an-mot

Nearly 50% of all faults found on MOTs could be avoided by carrying out regular, simple maintenance, like replacing bulbs, wipers and tyres.



The Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency (DVSA) is encouraging drivers to avoid MOT fails and save money.

The latest MOT testing data for Great Britain shows that around 40% of cars fail their MOT at the first attempt.

Common MOT fails

You can avoid the common MOT fails by checking:
  • lightbulbs are working - 30% of all faults related to lighting and signalling
  • tyre condition and pressure - 10% of all faults related to tyres
  • mirrors, wipers and washers - 8.5% of all faults related to ‘Driver’s view of the road’

You can read more about the car parts check at an MOT.


Test your knowledge of the MOT with this quiz

Check your lights


Nearly one in 5 (18.4%) of all cars taken for MOT had a problem with lighting and signalling – including simple problems, like blown bulbs.

Checking your lightbulbs is easy to do. You just need to give them a light tap to see if they are loose or damaged. You can also check the colours are right and match.

Replacement bulbs are fairly cheap and you can change them yourself if you have your car handbook. If not, many garages will change your bulb for free.

DVSA has published a series of short videos on YouTube about simple car maintenance - including one on how to carry out checks on lights and indicators.


Check your tyres



During 2014/15, 7.4% of car MOT fails were due to tyre issues.

You can use a tread depth gauge to check your tyre tread. The minimum tread for a car is 1.6mm.

You can also check that the tyres:
  • pressures are correct
  • are all the same size
  • have no cuts, bulges or other signs of damage

Check your brakes



One in 10 (9.6%) MOT fails are due to brake issues.

You can test your brakes every day as you set off.

If you hear any strange noises, or if your car pulls to one side, contact your local garage immediately.

You can also check your brake fluid levels. Look for the high/low markings on the reservoir and make sure that your brake fluid is topped up.


Driver’s view of the road


6.6% of MOT fails are due to issues with the Driver’s view of the road.

You can avoid this by carrying out simple checks like:
  • the windscreen wipers and washers work
  • your view of the road is clear of any stickers, toys or air fresheners

Windscreen wiper blades should be replaced if they show signs of damage or if they are more than a year old.

You should get your windscreen replaced if you have any large chips that affect your view, as these will result in an MOT fail.

Your rear-view mirrors must be adjustable and in good condition.

You should also make sure that you regularly top up your washer fluids and check that your washers are working properly before setting off.

Staying safe and saving money

DVSA Interim Chief Executive, Paul Satoor, said:

You shouldn’t wait for your MOT to check if your car needs maintenance. All drivers have a responsibility to make sure their vehicle is properly maintained and safe to drive at all times.

Carrying out simple checks on items like lights and tyres will help motorists to stay safe and legal, as well as saving time and money when their vehicle is due its MOT.

The MOT

The MOT tests your car and its parts to check that it meets the legal standards.

An MOT isn’t the same as having your car serviced and doesn’t check its general mechanical condition.

The test doesn’t cover the:
  • engine
  • clutch
  • gearbox

You can find more information about the MOT, how it works and how to get one in the getting an MOT guide.








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Friday, 18 March 2016

Drink drive limit could be cut by third, ministers say . . .

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Drink drive limit could be cut by third, ministers say

Andrew Jones, a transport minister, says that the drink drive limit could be lowered in England and Wales is there is 'robust evidence' that it has improved road safety in Scotland

Cited at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/road-and-rail-transport/12148918/Drink-drive-limit-could-be-cut-by-third-ministers-say.html


The drink-driving limit in England and Wales may be lowered to make it illegal to drive after one pint of lager or a small glass of wine, the Goverment has indicated.

Ministers said they could follow the example of Scotland, where the drink drive limit was lowered in 2014 from 80mg per 100ml of blood to 50mg,if there is "robust evidence" that it will save lives.

The new limit would be equivalent to a pint of beer or large glass of wine for a man and half a pint of beer or a small glass of wine for a woman.

Doctors and road safety experts have been calling for England to follow suit amid concerns that the levels in this country are now some of the highest in Europe.

The Government has previously said that the current drink driving limit in England and Wales "strikes an important balance between safety and personal freedom".

But Andrew Jones, a transport minister, said in response to a parliamentary question that he will meet with his Scottish counterpart to discuss the impact of lowering the limit.

He said: "I am intending to discuss with the Scottish Minister about the experience of the lower limit in Scotland and about the timescales to get access to robust evidence of the road safety impact.


"It is important to base our decisions on evidence and the Scottish experience will be crucial to that before we consider any possible changes to the limits in England and Wales.

"This Government's current position however remains to focus resources on enforcing against the most serious offenders."

The current 80mg limit in England and Wales is one of the highest in Europe, while several EU nations have banned drinking while driving entirely.

It is equivalent to one and a half small glasses of average strength wine or one and a half pints of normal strength beer.

Drink driving led to 240 fatalities and 1,080 serious injuries in 2014, the most recent figures available.

The new limit in Scotland came into force in December 2014. Police Scotland said that in the nine months after the drink drive limit was introduced the number of offences fell by 12.5 per cent.

There is also evidence it has changed social attitudes. In December a survey suggested that 82 per cent of Scots now believe that drinking any alcohol before driving is unacceptable.

An analysis by the RAC Foundation said that lowering the limit would have saved 25 lives last year and prevented 95 people being seriously injured.


Steve Gooding, director of the RAC Foundation, said: “Ministers in Westminster are right to remain open minded about drink-drive limits and ready to assess evidence from north of the border.

“It would be a poor argument to say cut the drink-drive limit just because others have done it but there is now plenty of data to suggest a change would have a marked improvement in road safety terms.

“Despite rapid traffic growth the number of people killed in drink-drive accidents has fallen dramatically over time. But the weight of evidence is that we could do more.

“Drink-drive policy has not moved on for half a century. But the momentum now seems to be in favour of change. This is not about following the crowd but following the evidence.”

Edmund King, the president of the AA, said that lowering the limit would require motorists to be more aware of the limit the morning after an evening of drinking.

"With a lower limit, drivers will also have to be aware of being over the limit the morning after"
Edmund King, the president of the AA

"A majority of AA members support a lower limit and it seems a sensible step to bring us into line with Scotland and the majority of European counltries.

"However, it would probably be more effective for the police to target hard-core offenders who are way over the current limit as they are involved in the most deaths and injuries on the road.

"With a lower limit, drivers will also have to be aware of being over the limit the morning after. Our research shows that almost 20 per cent of drivers have driven the morning after when they believed they could be over the limit."

"Our advice remains unchanged: don’t take the risk by driving after you have had a drink"
Andrew Jones, a transport minister

Mr Jones later attempted to clarify his comments. He said: "Britain continues to have some of the safest roads in the world because we crack down on those who break the law, and the government believes rigorous enforcement and serious penalties for drink drivers are a more effective deterrent than changing the drink driving limit.

“We continue to look at the best ways to improve road safety but the drink driving limit for England and Wales strikes an important balance between safety and personal freedom. By having our limit, we are not criminalising those who drink a small amount a long time before driving, but our advice remains unchanged: don’t take the risk by driving after you have had a drink”.






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Thursday, 17 March 2016

Highway Code - Snow and ice . . .

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Snow and ice 

The Highway Code applies to England, Scotland and Wales and is essential reading for everyone. 

Rule 229


Before you set off 
you MUST be able to see, so clear all snow and ice from all your windows 
you MUST ensure that lights are clean and number plates are clearly visible and legible 
make sure the mirrors are clear and the windows are demisted thoroughly 
remove all snow that might fall off into the path of other road users 
check your planned route is clear of delays and that no further snowfalls or severe weather are predicted. 

















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Wednesday, 16 March 2016

HGV roadworthiness standards continue to improve . . .

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HGV roadworthiness standards continue to improve

Latest DVSA figures show further improvements in the roadworthiness and traffic compliance of lorries on British roads.

DVSA carries out random 'fleet compliance checks' each year to determine the roadworthiness and traffic compliance of HGVs, trailers and PSVs.

Over 9 out of 10 GB lorries inspected in fleet compliance checks last year were given a clean bill of health; 9.3% of GB lorries were found to have mechanical faults, down from 10.2% in 2013/14.

Compliance for GB trailers has also improved, with more than 9 out of 10 trailers inspected meeting the required standards. Only 9.8% were found to have mechanical faults in 2014/15, down from 12.5% the previous year.






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